The Jack Russell Terrier is a small terrier that is commonly confused with the Parson Russell Terrier. The Parson Russell Terrier is shorter-bodied and longer-legged, while the Jack Russell Terrier is longer-bodied and shorter-legged. It is not yet an officially recognized breed by the AKC. The UKC recognized both the Jack and Parson under the breed Russell Terriers until 2009, and the NKC recognizes the Jack but not the Parson.
The Jack Russell is a small, agile, hunting terrier. Its body is slightly longer than its height. It stands at approximately 10 to 15 inches, with a compact body and short tail. The chest is the Jack Russell’s most important feature. It must be shallow and narrow, with the front legs not too far apart, giving it an athletic rather than a heavy chested look. Jack Russells were bred to hunt the red fox; accordingly, their stature had to be equipped to enter and work in the small burrows that foxes escaped into.
The Jack Russell's coat can be wiry or smooth, but is always a dense double coat. Its coloring is generally white, or white with tan, brown or black markings. Jack Russells weigh in at approximately 14 to 18 pounds. The head is broad and flat, with a powerful jaw containing a scissor bite, and straight, slightly large teeth. Jack Russells move with a jaunty, confident gait that portrays the character of the breed.
PERSONALITY AND TEMPERAMENT
Jack Russell Terriers are characteristically high energy and very driven. Even though they are small in size, Jack Russells are not recommended for apartment dwellers due to their need for exercise and stimulation. They can get restless and destructive if not given enough stimulation. Overall though, they are a merry, devoted breed.
They are also very intelligent, athletic, fearless, and vocal dogs. Obedience training is highly advised as they have a tendency to be stubborn and aggressive at times. This, combined with their loud and energetic nature, makes them great guard dogs, however.
The biggest care concern with Jack Russells is making sure they get enough exercise. Outside of that, caring for them is relatively simple. Jack Russells only need to be bathed when necessary due to their short coat. Regular combing and brushing is recommended with a firm bristle brush.
To get a Jack Russell Terrier show-worthy, its coat must be stripped rather than clipped. This creates a shorter and smoother coat that is water and bramble resistant, unlike clipped coats.
Common health issues include inherited eye diseases and deafness. Legg Perthes is a disease of the hip joints that can occur most commonly in smaller breed dogs, the Jack Rusell included. They are also prone to dislocation of the knee caps.
Jack Russells are well known for living long and healthy lives, as breeders have protected the gene pool, preventing direct in-line breeding. Given proper care, life expectancy averages about 15 years, possibly even longer. The common health issues associated with Jack Russells are generally due to recessive genes of certain lines being bred.
HISTORY AND BACKGROUND
Reverend John Russell was a parson with a passion for fox hunting back in the 19th century. He developed a strain of fox hunting terriers from the now extinct English White Terrier, a breed that was bred to be white in color so that they could be distinguished from the quarry they were pursuing. This breed line eventually broke off into the Parson Russell Terrier and the Jack Russell Terrier.
Following World War II the need for hunting dogs began to decline drastically, and with it, the Jack Russell Terrier numbers. At that point, the breed increasingly was kept primarily as family and companion dogs.
The Jack Russell Terrier Club of America was formed in 1976 by one of the first Jack Russell Terrier breeders in the U.S., Ailsa Crawford. In the late 1990’s the AKC moved to recognize the Jack Russell as an official breed, but the Jack Russell Terrier Club of America opposed this move as they wished to keep the Jack Russell's working characteristics intact. In show, Jack Russell Terriers are not judged for their worthy physical characteristics the way non-working breeds are, but rather for the characteristics that make them excellent work companions. They lose points for exaggerations or faults that interfere with their ability to work.
The Miniature Schnauzer is a small terrier originally bred in Germany in the 19th century. Its appearance is distinguished by its "small beard." Known for being less aggressive than the typical terrier, Miniature Schnauzers are lovable members of many families today.
The Miniature Schnauzer has a double coat comprising of a close undercoat and a wiry, hard outer coat, which is longer around the eyebrows, legs, and muzzle. The abundant facial "furnishings" compliment its keen expression. The Miniature Schnauzer, with an almost square proportioned and robust body, has a sturdy build. As it was developed to catch rats, it is tough and quick, with a far-reaching stride.
PERSONALITY AND TEMPERAMENT
The companionable, playful, spunky, curious, and alert Miniature Schnauzer is a well-mannered and gentle house dog that loves to be surrounded by engaging activities. It is less aggressive towards dogs than many terriers, and less dominating than other larger Schnauzers. And although it is generally submissive, it can be stubborn or sly. Some Miniatures occasionally have a tendency to bark a lot, but all enjoy the company of children.
The Miniature Schnauzer's wire coat requires combing every week, plus shaping and scissoring. Stripping is good for show dogs, while clipping (or styling) is sufficient enough for pets, as it softens the texture of the coat. The exercise requirements of the energetic Miniature Schnauzer can be met with a moderate on leash walk or a playful game in the garden. And although the dog is capable of living outdoors in temperate or warm climates, its emotionally needs are best met with a cozy "dog area" indoors with its family.
The Miniature Schnauzer, with a lifespan of 12 to 14 years, sometimes suffers from health problems like mycobacterium avium infection, cataract and retinal dysplasia. Other major health issues that may affect it are urolithiasis and progressive retinal atrophy (PRA), while some minor health problems include von Willebrand's disease (vWD), myotonia congenita, Schnauzer comedo syndrome, and allergies. A veterinarian may run DNA or eye exams to identify some of these issues.
HISTORY AND BACKGROUND
Developed in Germany in the late 19th century, the Miniature Schnauzer was originally bred as a small farm dog to keep the rats and vermin away. It was not only the most popular Schnauzer, but the tiniest of its class, and touted to be the only terrier that did not originate from the European Isle stock. It is also believed the Miniature Schnauzer was derived from crossbreeding Affenpinschers and Poodles with small Standard Schnauzers. Incidentally, the name "Schnauzer" comes from an eponymous show dog exhibited in Germany in 1879; translated from German, the word schnauzer means "small beard."
In Germany, the Miniature Schnauzer was displayed as a distinct breed from the Standard Schnauzer in the late 1890s. However, it was not until 1933, that the American Kennel Club grouped Miniature and the Standard into separate breeds. In the United States, the Miniature is the one and only Schnauzer under the Terrier Group. In England, this breed became part of Schnauzers under the Utility Group.
The Miniature Schnauzer was introduced to the United States much later than the Standard and Giant Schnauzers, but after World War II, the Mini became more popular than the other Schnauzers, eventually becoming the third most popular breed in the U.S. This alert and smart-looking family pet and show dog remains a constant favorite among dog lovers.
You know what they say about curiosity and cats. Well, that’s not far from the truth in some cases. Cats do tend to be curious creatures, choosing to play with or chew on things that perhaps they shouldn’t. Let’s talk about some of things that can get cats into trouble.
One of the quintessential pictures of a cat is that of playing with a ball of yarn or string. Certainly, some yarn or string can keep a cat entertained for hours. But there’s also a dark side to this obsession. Cats that ingest string, yarn, or similar linear objects can suffer from severe intestinal damage. These foreign bodies can cause intestinal obstructions or even perforations that can be life-threatening. Sometimes the string actually gets looped around the tongue before being swallowed, anchoring it in place in the mouth as the rest of the foreign body (e.g., the string) attempts to move through the intestinal tract. This can cause even more damage.
Like string and yarn, cats also like to play with other objects that dangle and/or swing. This interest may include electrical cords. Needless to say, biting into an electrical cord can have a serious effect on an unsuspecting feline. In the best of circumstances, a painful electrical shock may occur. Worst case scenario is a fatal electrocution. I’ve seen cats that have survived but sustained serious burns and damage to teeth and other mouth structures.
There are a number of plants and flowers that can be dangerous for your cat. These toxic plants and flowers may be found in the home as potted plants or in bouquets containing cut flowers. At the top of the list of toxic plants is the lily. All true lilies are extremely poisonous for your cat, so much so that I would not even recommend keeping them in a household with cats. All parts of the lily are considered to be toxic, even the pollen. These plants are so dangerous for cats that even rubbing up against the plant and getting pollen on the hair coat and then grooming can lead to a life-threatening poisoning. Typically, exposure to lilies causes acute kidney failure for affected cats.
While lilies are certainly one of the most toxic of all plants for your cat, there are a number of other plants and flowers that can be dangerous as well. If in doubt, keep the plant in an area where your cat cannot access it, or get rid of it. Catnip and cat grass, however, are perfectly for safe for cats and many cats enjoy these plants.
Antifreeze is another potential threat to your cat. Traditional antifreeze, if ingested, can cause kidney failure. Even a very small amount can be toxic for a cat. And to make matters worse, the non-pet-friendly varieties have a sweet taste that apparently many cats find tempting. Pet-friendly antifreezes are available. However, even these, if consumed in large enough quantities, can still pose a threat to your cat, though poisoning with pet-safe antifreeze is much less likely to occur than with regular (non-pet-safe) antifreeze. Keep all antifreeze locked in a secure location where your cat cannot access it. Keep your pet cat indoors and consider restricting access to your garage, in case of a car that is leaking antifreeze.
Another potential threat comes in the form of candles, tart warmers, and/or potpourri. Open flames pose an obvious threat. But the fragrances and particularly the essential oils that are part of so many of these products can pose a danger for your cat, also.
There are other things that can pose a threat to your cat as well. But these are some of the most commonly encountered and some of the most deadly.
The reason your dog’s food can stay on the store shelves, and then sit in your pantry for a while longer, is that the food is preserved with antioxidants and other necessary ingredients called preservatives. Antioxidants are substances that provide health benefits and prevent ingredients in the food from spoiling (oxidation). They are very important to keep your dog’s food tasting good and help maintain its nutrients.
Oxidation is the process that occurs when foods are exposed to oxygen. Naturally, over time the oxygen will cause a breakdown in the nutrients and fats in a food and cause everything from discoloration to rancidity. An antioxidant works to block or slow down the rate at which oxygen causes damage. Antioxidants are added to foods during processing to extend the shelf life of the final product.
The success of antioxidants in pet food depends on several conditions. Generally, antioxidants work better if they are added early in the production process. Another factor to consider is the combination of antioxidants used in the formula. Specific amounts and types of particular antioxidants work better together than others.
What do Antioxidants do?There are numerous health benefits provided by antioxidants—aside from preserving pet food. Antioxidants also protect the body’s cells from damage and strengthen the immune system. Every day, the body is exposed to the destructive effects of free radicals, which are produced when cells are damaged due to the effects of oxidation. These free radicals are unstable and can cause even further cell damage if left unchecked.
This is where antioxidants come into play. Antioxidants slow down damage from free radicals and prevent further cell damage. They allow the immune system to function without interference from free radicals. This protection is important to prevent serious health issues from developing or worsening.
In young animals, antioxidants provide a boost to the developing immune system before vaccination has a chance to be effective. In older animals, oxidative injury to cells in the brain and organs may be slowed by antioxidants, providing a longer, healthier lifespan.
Where do Antioxidants come from?There are two types of antioxidants commonly used in dog foods — natural andsynthetic. Natural antioxidants include vitamins C, E, citric acid, and some herbal sources like rosemary. Vitamin C can be taken from common fruits and vegetables like cranberries, apples, tomatoes, blueberries, and more. Natural vitamin E is commonly listed as “mixed tocopherols” on the pet food ingredient list. Citric acids are taken from various citrus fruits like oranges, lemons, and limes.
Common synthetic antioxidants (those created in a laboratory) you may see on the label include BHA, BHT, and ethoxyquin. BHA and BHT are chemically similar to vitamin E and are often used in combination in dog foods because they work well together. They are both very stable at high temperatures.
Ethoxyquin has been controversial in the past, but it is currently allowed in pet foods at low levels that are considered safe by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. This antioxidant is considered to be very effective and stable during processing, providing excellent preservative abilities with little concern about side effects at the recommended levels.
Choosing a Dog FoodIf you are scanning the ingredients list on a dog food bag, keep in mind that pet food companies are required to list antioxidants and their common names. You will also see a notation that the ingredient is used as a preservative.
While natural antioxidants may be considered more “healthy,” you must realize that they may not last as long to preserve the final product. Dog foods that are made with natural preservatives will have a shorter shelf life than a pet food made with a combination of natural and synthetic antioxidants.
No matter which food you choose, be sure to check the date on the package to see when the food is considered to be best used before. Store it in a cool, dry place, preferably in an airtight container, out of the light. Once opened, a food preserved with only natural antioxidants will lose its freshness sooner, so you may wish to purchase smaller packages.
WASHINGTON, (AFP) - Dogs show jealousy when their owners spend time with what appears to be another dog, suggesting that the emotion may have survivalist roots, US researchers said Wednesday.
Scientists tested 36 dogs and their owners with an experiment in which the owners were told to play with three separate objects in front of their dog.
One of the objects was a toy dog that barked and wagged its tail when a button on it was pushed. The owners were told to play with it as if it were a real dog for one minute.
They were told to do the same in the next phase of the experiment with a toy jack-o-lantern pail, acting as if it were a dog and playing with it.
Finally, they were asked to read aloud a pop-up children's book that played a song, as if they were telling the story to a small child.
Certain dog behaviors were much more common when owners played with the toy dog versus the other objects, the researchers found.
For instance, dogs more often snapped, pushed their owners, pushed against the object and tried to get in between the owner and the toy dog than they did with the other toys.
The dogs were about twice as likely to push their owner (78 percent of dogs did this) when he or she was playing with the toy dog than when the interaction involved the jack-o-lantern (42 percent). Just 22 percent did so with the book.
About 30 percent of the dogs tried to get between their owner and the toy dog, and 25 percent snapped at the stuffed canine.
The dogs came from a range of breeds, including dachshund, Pomeranian,Boston terrier, Maltese and pug. Almost half of those in the study were mixed breeds.
The research, led by Christine Harris and Caroline Prouvost from the University of California, San Diego, is published in the journal PLOS ONE.
"Our study suggests not only that dogs do engage in what appear to be jealous behaviors but also that they were seeking to break up the connection between the owner and a seeming rival," Harris said.
"We can't really speak to the dogs' subjective experiences, of course, but it looks as though they were motivated to protect an important social relationship."
While the plague gained most of its notoriety back in the Middle Ages, it is still worthy of respect out here in the American West. The disease isn’t as newsworthy as it once was since people don’t come in contact with the causative bacteria (Yersinia pestis) as frequently as they used to and when they do, they can usually be cured with antibiotics. However, people — especially pet owners — need to be aware of the plague when living in or travelling to the Western United States.
Plague is usually spread by fleas that feed on infected prairie dogs and sometimes rabbits, squirrels, mice, and rats. When an infected animal dies, the fleas leave the carcass to find another host, thus spreading the disease. People and animals can also become sick after coming in contact with blood or tissues from an infected animal.
Four people have been treated for plague in Colorado this month after coming in direct contact with a dog that subsequently died from the infection. Three have recovered, but one person who developed the most serious form of the disease (pneumonic plague) remains hospitalized. The Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment says that the dog “likely was exposed to a prairie dog or rabbit with plague-infected fleas.”
Dr. Jennifer House, public health veterinarian at the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment, encourages people take the following precautions to prevent plague exposure:
Are Pain Meds for Dogs Safe?
Knowing that a dog is in pain is upsetting. So it's an understandable reaction to want to do something — anything — to provide the dog pain relief as soon as possible. However, as tempting as it may be to reach for an over-the-counter pain meds such as ibuprofen, aspirin, or acetaminophen and give it to the family dog, you must avoid them at all costs. Over-the-counter pain meds and anti-inflammatories can be very dangerous, even fatal, when used improperly in dogs.
Are NSAIDs Dangerous for Dogs?Some of the most common over-the-counter pain relievers fall into the category of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatories (NSAIDs). Common examples include aspirin, ibuprofen, and naproxen. They all work by inhibiting an enzyme called cyclooxygenase that is responsible for the production of prostaglandins that promote inflammation,fever, and pain. But prostaglandins also play many other roles in the body, including maintaining adequate blood flow to the kidneys, the production of a layer of mucusthat protects the inner lining of the gastrointestinal tract from stomach acid, and normal blood clotting. When these functions are reduced, dogs can develop vomiting and diarrhea (often bloody), loss of appetite, bleeding disorders, kidney or liver dysfunction or failure. They may even die without appropriate treatment.
Problems can arise with NSAID use in dogs for several reasons:
What About Tylenol for Dogs?Acetaminophen (Tylenol) presents a slightly different story. Acetaminophen is not an NSAID. No one is exactly sure how it works to reduce pain and fever (it has no effect on inflammation), but when dogs ingest toxic amounts of acetaminophen, it destroys their liver cells, damages the kidneys, and converts hemoglobin, the oxygen-carrying molecule in blood, to methemoglobin resulting poor oxygen delivery throughout the body and tissue damage. (NOTE: Cats are so sensitive to the adverse effects of acetaminophen that just one, regular strength tablet can result in death.)
Ask Your Vet About Pain Meds for Dogs and Other Pain Relief MeasuresFor all of these reasons, NSAIDS and other pain relievers should only be given to pets under the supervision of a veterinarian. Drug companies have designed specific pain meds for dogs that are safer and more effective than those that are designed for people. Examples of pain meds for dogs include carprofen, deracoxib, etodolac, and meloxicam. With knowledge of the specifics of a dog’s health history, the doctor can determine which medication and dose is most appropriate and design a plan for monitoring that will make treatment as safe as possible.
Medications are not the only way to provide dog pain relief, however. Chronic inflammatory conditions such as arthritis often respond well to dietary modification. For example, foods that are supplemented with omega-3 fatty acids like eicosapentanoic acid (EPA) can reduce joint inflammation and the pain associated with it. Also, overweight dogs benefit greatly from a weight loss plan that includes both diet and exercise. Foods with a lower caloric density but normal amounts of protein can help dogs lose weight while maintaining muscle mass and strength. Reducing body fat and promoting lean body mass decreases stress on joints and inflammation throughout the body.
The combination of a good diet and weight loss will often lessen if not completely eliminate the need for pain meds for dogs suffering from chronic conditions like arthritis. More severe cases can also benefit from physical therapy, acupuncture, coldlaser treatments, and other interventions. Talk to your veterinarian to determine what combination of diet, exercise, pain meds, and other treatments is right for your dog.
Medicating a cat is sometimes one of the most challenging tasks a cat owner must face. But with a little advance preparation, it doesn't have to be difficult.
Before you attempt to medicate your cat, get all your supplies together. Have the medication handy, along with a treat to make the experience more pleasant for your cat, and a towel for wrapping your cat if necessary.
To give a liquid medication, place your cat on a flat surface, facing away from you with his hindquarters against your body. You should already have the medication drawn up into a dosing syringe. Use your free hand to tilt your cat’s head up slightly. Place the tip of syringe in the back corner of your cat’s mouth, squirting the medication in the space between the cheek and gums. Be sure to reward your cat with a favorite treat afterward.
To give a pill or capsule, hold your cat in the same position you would to give a liquid. Using one hand, steady your cat’s head and tilt it slightly upward. Grasp the pill or capsule between your thumb and forefinger of the opposite hand. Use your middle finger to open your cat’s mouth and slide the pill down the center of the tongue to the back of the mouth.
Alternatively, you can use a pill gun (a device used to hold the pill or capsule and place it in the mouth), again placing the medication on the tongue at the back of your cat’s mouth. Continue to hold your cat’s head in a slightly tilted position with the mouth closed until you see your cat swallow. Follow the pilling procedure with a treat for your cat.
If your cat struggles and attempts to scratch, wrap a thick towel around your cat’s neck and front legs to protect yourself from your cat’s claws.
If medicating your cat is difficult, you may try hiding your cat’s medication in food. Liquid medication can be mixed in with wet food or with gravy or tuna juice. Check with your veterinarian first though, to be sure that this will not affect the efficacy of the medication.
For pills or capsules, you can purchase pill pockets which can be used to hide a pill or capsule inside. The pill pocket with the medication inside is then offered as a treat. Alternatively, you can try making your own pill pocket by wrapping the pill or capsule in a bit of cheese or inside of a ball of canned food.
However, many cats will simply nibble around the medication, rather than actually taking the medication. If your cat does this, you will need to either manually medicate your cat or find another alternative.
In many situations, there may be other alternatives available. Many medications can be compounded, producing a liquid with a pleasant flavor. There are special compounding pharmacies that can do this if your veterinarian is unable to formulate the flavored medication in the hospital.
Some medications are also available as a transdermal gel. This special medicated gel is able to be absorbed through the skin rather than requiring oral administration. Typically, these medications are applied to the inside of the tip of the ear. Methimazole, a medication frequently used to treat hyperthyroidism in cats, is frequently dosed as a transdermal gel.
Transdermal patches are another alternative that may be an option with some medications. These are patches with medication embedded in them that are affixed directly to the skin. The medication is then released from the patch through the skin in a time-released manner. Fentanyl, a potent pain reliever, is often dosed as a patch.
Unfortunately, not all medications lend themselves well to transdermal applications. However, your veterinarian will be able to help you choose a medication delivery system that is manageable for you and can also demonstrate how to go about medicating your cat.
WASHINGTON, July 22, 2014 (AFP) - Elephants possess a sense of smell that is likely the strongest ever identified in a single species, according to a study by Japanese scientists out Tuesday.
The African elephant's genome contains the largest number of olfactory receptor (OR) genes -- nearly 2,000 -- said the study in the journal Genome Research.
Olfactory receptors detect odors in the environment.
That means elephants' sniffers are five times more powerful than people's noses, twice that of dogs, and even stronger than the previous known record-holder in the animal kingdom: rats.
"Apparently, an elephant's nose is not only long but also superior," said lead study author Yoshihito Niimura of the University of Tokyo.
Just how these genes work is not well understood, but they likely helped elephants survive and navigate their environment over the ages.
The ability to smell allows creatures to find mates and food -- and avoid predators.
The study compared elephant olfactory receptor genes to those of 13 other animals, including horses, rabbits, guinea pigs, cows, rodents and chimpanzees.
Primates and people actually had very low numbers of OR genes compared to other species, the study found.
This could be "a result of our diminished reliance on smell as our visual acuity improved," Niimura said.
The research was funded by the Japan Science and Technology Agency and the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science Grants-in-Aid program.
While dog might be man’s best friend, that puddle on the floor sure isn’t. If your new housebroken puppy or rescued dog occasionally pees on the floor for no fathomable reason, then you might have a dog with submissive/excitement urination issues.So what should you do if you think you have a dog with an excitement or submissive peeing problem? First off, take your dog to the vet to rule out other reasons for the inappropriate peeing. If you receive the all clear from your vet, how do you know which problem your dog has?
If your pooch doesn’t pee when you’re in a dominant position (i.e., looking your dog directly in the eye, bending from the waist, greeting your dog face on), then chances are your dog is suffering from an excitement issue. If the dog does pee when you arrive home, when you’re in a dominant position, or when it is in trouble, then it’s probably a submissive issue. Either way, the situation can be remedied.
Submissive dogs pee when they are greeted, when someone approaches, when they are punished, and when there is a history of rough treatment or punishment after peeing; this is common in rescued dogs. This is also a common reaction with shy, anxious, and timid dogs. To fix this problem, avoid scolding or yelling at your dog after it has peed. Instead, try building its confidence by teaching it simple commands (sit, stay, come), and reward your dog after each success. The same applies with teaching simple tricks (roll over, fetch); go with the reward and praise route.
You will also want to approach your dog in non-dominant postures. Avoid direct eye contact, approach from the side, and crouch down to your dog's level. When patting your pooch, go for under the chin rather than the top of the head. Keep all greetings low key, and when the dog does pee, simply clean it up without fuss and go away. Do not forget to reward and praise your pup when it pees in the appropriate place.
The good news for you is this usually happens to puppies under one year of age, and they will usually grow out of it. The bad news is it’s not going to happen overnight. These are the dogs that pee while playing, when you come home, or when people visit.
To help your puppy with this issue (and save that very expensive rug you just bought), try keeping all playtime outside, or on a specially prepared area of newspaper and puppy pads. This way, if there is a little accident due to over-excitement, it doesn't have to be a big deal.
When there is an accident, just as with submissive peeing, do not reprimand or punish your pup. Simply clean it up quietly and leave the puppy (or dog, if this is happening with an older dog) alone. Give your puppy treats when it pees in the correct place, and keep all greetings to a minimum. You may even want to ignore the dog when you arrive home. Does this seem cruel? It's not really, as it gives your pooch a chance to calm down on its own. Ask guests to do the same.
When the dog pees while out on walks, give it praise and treats. The same goes for when the dog pees in designated areas (which is not the rug or the designer bedspread). All these things should not only help your pooch break its habit of peeing when excited, but will also help you to cultivate a calmer, more confident dog.
So good luck with your dog. And remember, patience and perseverance will always pay off.
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For the LOVE of Pets
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